Espacio de José Rafael Otazo, en donde se invoca el respeto y la tolerancia desde la Masonería y sus distintas obediencias en pro de un mundo mejor.Todos los escritos y trabajos acá presentados tanto históricos,literarios como académicos,guardan relación directa o indirecta con la masonería y sus actores.
conduct has been most infamous than the Americans with us: you see decided the
fate of things and deals with protests and, who knows if false, we want
lisonjear to intimidate the Spaniards and let them enter their interests"
of Bolivar to J.R. Revenga
the US ambition to carve out a major gap between emerging independent nations
was fast and steady. On July 12 of that year he arrived in Angostura
American diplomatic agent Juan Bautista Irvine.
three were the tasks entrusted to Irvine by Secretary of State John Quincy
Adams: 1. To express
the sympathy of his country to the new republics that were born in South
America. 2. Protest captured the two ships (Tigre and Freedom) by the
patriotic forces in the Orinoco and 3. Clarifying
the course they would take the relations between his country and Venezuela
Future events would show another road map on priorities of the mission of the
schooners Tigre and Freedom had been captured by the commanded by Admiral Brion
when trying to run the blockade of the Orinoco to avoid providing the Spanish
besieged in Angostura and in the Castles of Guayana La Vieja and had been hired
Republican fleet the Spanish governor of Guayana, Lorenzo Fitzgerald.
ships were seized at different times. Tiger left the Orinoco with the
mission to bring weapons, ammunition and snuff that had been bought by the
British merchant Lamson Fitzgerald. On March 17 he set sail in Salem,
Massachusetts State port in the United States and entered port on the Orinoco
April. Subsequently carrying other cargo would when he was captured on
July 4, 1817. On the other hand, the Freedom schooner had left Martinique in
June, carrying ammunition.Already on the river he met the patriots vessels
blocked it and yet you were warned it was violating the blockade and gave
orders returned, he tried to return furtively to trace the Orinoco, when he was
captured by the squadron of Captain Navio Antonio Diaz.
received Irvine amid great expectations about their mission. On July 13 he had written to
General Paez announcing the arrival of American diplomatic agent and informing
him that the next day would present his credentials with which you could begin
to perform their functions.
wrote ten notes Bolivar between July 25 and October 8. The Liberator acknowledged and
responded in many other occasions, the last of which was on 12 October. The
wording of the first letter of reply realizes that the only subject of the
letter of Irvine is the Tiger and Freedom, schooners that is one of the
objectives of his mission to Venezuela.
Supreme Chief Irvine told that the reply to your message of July 25, had to
wait for the consultation process followed the boat owners. Also, with regard to your letter
of 27 that month, she informed him that they would receive compensation in the
case, provided it was accepted justice with which acted weapons of Venezuela. Repeats
its view high worth about US mission in Venezuela, but warns that American
ships "... forgetting what is due to the fraternity, friendship and the
liberal principles that we have tried and executed circumvent the lock (...) to
give weapons a executioners and to feed some three centuries tigers have shed
most of the American blood ... "
September 29, after a long epistolary debate in which the Liberator displayed
his extraordinary gifts as a statesman, managing with skill and expertise the
political, legal, economic and diplomacy areas, wrote a new note reiterating
the 25 exposed evidence that month to Irvine, regretting it in his letter of 26
the rejected. For
the umpteenth time, he exposes the reasons for Venezuela, but now says
categorical that under the circumstances is forced "to resolve the
situation carries a letter from Irvine 1 October in which it has been concluded
the debate on the issue of the schooners, judging that Venezuela acted
replied on 7 without miss the opportunity to tell you is going to shirk the
penultimate paragraph of your letter, considering "on shocking and
insulting the government of Venezuela end" and that to answer it would be
necessary to use the same language Irvine "contrary modesty and decorum on
my part that I have driven the issue ".
he will not force him to reciprocate insults, but even if it will not, will not
allow Irvine, "outrage nor despise the government and the rights of Venezuela". Ends blunt: "The same goes
for Spain to Venezuela fight against the whole world, if everyone
all that is fired with the protocol uses his high investiture, respect, decency
and high responsibility that has to rule the destiny of Venezuela and its
representation on the international stage. Although Venezuela had not
consolidated their independence and the government still had no authority over
the entire territory of the republic, Bolivar acted as a seasoned head of state
in terms of managing diplomacy with honor, dignity and firmness, understanding
the value to establish -in that context- solid friendly relations with the
United States, while safeguarding the sovereign interests of the nascent
Republic, thereby sowing insoslayables parameters Republican, independent and
sovereign behavior in the handling of foreign policy of the Nation.
rewrites to Irvine on October 12 in response to a note of this 8 March. In it the diplomatic agent is
surprised by the response of the Liberator 7 October. Bolivar tells him
that this would have been, if Irvine had simply give closed the matter, but
that the tenor of it forced him to respond to not take for certain none of the
arguments in the letter and that are but the reiteration of the above, refuted
one by one and at the time. Thus, the Supreme Head closed any possibility
to leave open the possibility of being used against the Republic issues.
this, Bolivar gives ended his communication with Irvine, does not receive or
send any new correspondence to the representative of the US government. What had begun with great hopes
omens and 4 months earlier, he had been a fiasco, to the neglect of Irvine to
the friendly proposal and attached to the right of Bolivar and the subsequent
escalation of aggressive speech, even threatening the US.
Bautista Irvine did not immediately return to his country. He even participated as a special
guest on the installation of the Congress of Angostura on 15 February 1819.
Irvine reported its mission to Secretary of State John Adams, in which
distilling hatred for his failed, calling Bolivar a dictator and tyrant, and
naive and quixotic. On February 27, 1819, he left the city, frustrated by
the ruin of their management. In his country he devoted himself to writing
newspaper articles in which he labeled Bolivar " 'General charlatan and
months after the departure of Irvine, the US government sent Commodore Oliver
H. Venezuela Perry who arrived in Angostura on 25 July 1819. Its mission was to give and
receive explanations about the failure of the mission of Irvine.
had left Angostura on May 23 towards the western plains where he would gather
the most prominent leaders of the army in order to convince them of the need to
transfer military operations to New Granada. The premiership had been assumed
by Vice President Francisco Antonio Zea, who had an ill-advised management in
handling government affairs. Perry managed Zea what Irvine could not get
Bolivar: the return of Tiger and Freedom schooners what Manuel Alfredo
Rodriguez believes the first defeat of the Venezuelan diplomacy. According
to Francisco Pividal when the Liberator was aware of the fact, "he
considered humiliating such action."
25, 1820, in a letter to Jose Rafael Revenga, Minister of Foreign Affairs and
Finance, the Liberator had told him forcefully their apprehensions regarding US
policy. He says
"never conduct has been most infamous than the Americans with us: you see
decided the fate of things and with protests and offers, who knows if false, we
want lisonjear to intimidate the Spaniards and let them enter their interests
"and then adds" I do not know what I should think of this
extraordinary frankness now Americans show: on the one hand I doubt it,
otherwise I affirm the confidence that having reached our cause to its fullest,
it's time to repair the old grievances (...)
anti-neutrality North America has humiliated us so much, we exijámosle services
to compensate for their humiliation and fratricide. Let us pray a lot and let us show
to be worth more circumspect or assert ourselves. "Surely,
he was thinking of his disastrous experience with Irvine two years ago.
Rafael Otazo M. ---------------------
Member of the Society Bolivarian of Venezuela,
Member of the Society Disclosing Military History of Venezuela.
The current role of as
charge d'affaires ai despite their seniority in the exercise of diplomacy has
not always been understood in its proper perspective by those who are not
involved directly in the workplace, or by training academic in the field of
"vagueness" in some media, allows only as charge d'affaires ai own
consuellor or economic and commercial attaches in diplomatic missions
functions. Also when referring to as charge d’affaires “ad interim"
(ai) despite its title establishes the timing of its management, they are
attributed a permanent basis. In
fact, the diplomatic staff of the mission that has exercised this
responsibility, after the return of the ambassador and therefore completed its
interim management, will continue to attach such a title without
properly corresponds. It should be recalled in the same context, that
the charge d'affaires in countries that retain the tradition of using French as
a native language for certain aspects of diplomacy, are called
"chargé d'affaires". It must also be remembered that in the field of
diplomatic law has established two categories of as charge d'affaires ai . The
"ad hoc" and "ad interim" The business manager
with letter cabinet, "ad hoc" or for certain countries "chargé
d'affaires en pied" (ep) is a head of "permanent" mission,
unlike the charge d'affaires "ad interim" which is obviously a head
of "temporary" mission. , relative worth pointing to as charge d'affaires ai "ad hoc"
designation is usually due to the intention of the sending State to
maintain a mission for an extended period with a "lower than a normal
embassy" category, whether for reasons of political or protocol character.
These are credited by
letters of cabinet (signed by the Chancellor of the country sending) to be
delivered in a simple ceremony the Chancellor of the receiving State for
accreditation carrier thereof, for which "must have obtained"
previously the "placet" or welcome.
However, the charge
d'affaires "ad interim" (ai) is accredited temporarily "in the
receiving State or international organization" by sending a diplomatic
note to the ambassador, and in special cases directly by the Foreign
Due to the principle
"Legatus non potest delegare" A business manager cannot accredit
other. The charge d'affaires
ai is a member of the diplomatic staff of the mission, which occupies the
position of head of mission for temporary absence of the ambassador, whether by
vacation, sick or officers, or in the period between the final departure of the
ambassador and the delivery of credentials of his successor period
travel. This type of business manager, despite its interim nature, would exert
functions for long periods, when the sending State has "called to
see" the ambassador for an unspecified time (to express displeasure or
significant disagreement), among other special cases.
countries with diplomatic career "rigorously established , " the
position of chargé d'affaires ai usually performed by the staff of the mission
holding the class immediately below the ambassador, or by the official
"career highest ranking" in the mission. A curious fact
in the “Era of Trujillo” recommending chooses to charge d'affaires to
diplomatic official "more affection to the regime" in the
mission. Remember; do not usually credited as charge d'affaires ai of the
added defense (military).
The charge d'affaires ai,
being a head of mission of "fourth category", from the point of view
of precedence, it puts after the charge d'affaires with letters cabinet, which
is a head of mission of "third category". In this regard it should
be noted that the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (Art . 14)
states: "Except as concerns precedence and etiquette, there shall be no
differentiation between heads of mission by reason of their class."
It is recalled that in very special occasions that can not be counted
in the mission to an official with diplomatic status to be accredited as charge
d'affaires ai, was then credited as " charge d'affaires ai files"
administrative official who is in front of it (prior consent of the receiving
He also happens if
credited for such responsibility to a consular official who holds only range. Obviously, the "file managers" are not
heads of mission property, and both its authority and its functions are
limited, "for lack of representative character" in its charge
Jose Rafael Otazo M. --------------------- University Professor. Member of Number Chair "H" of the Academy of Language, chapter Carabobo.
Member of the Bolivarian Society of Venezuela Member of the Disclosing Society of Military History of Venezuela. Member Writers Association of Carabobo State. Researcher at the Association for the Promotion of Historical Studies in Central America.